A latent democracy measure 1850-2000

Foldvari, P.

In this paper we apply a factor analysis with a measurement error model to extractthe latent democracy variable from the components of polity2 and Vanhanen’s Index ofDemocracy, under the assumption that each of these components are driven by a commonlatent factor with different amount of measurement errors. We use the estimated latentdemocracy variable to estimate the distribution of democracy across countries over the 1860-2000 period.

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